Opener Alastair Cook was the only batsman to stand out, making 70 in his record-leveling 153rd consecutive test.
Earlier, four wickets each from Mohammad Abbas and HasanAli restricted the hosts to 184.
Azhar Ali was 18 not out and Haris Sohail 21 not out in the first of this two-match series.
A new worldwide season started with some familiar problems for England, who stumbled to 43-3 after winning the toss and then lost their last five wickets for 16 runs in 4.4 overs to be dismissed for 184 soon after tea.
Alastair Cook celebrates his 56th Test fifty
But England look as though they are suffering a post-Ashes stress disorder and have been outplayed by a Pakistan side who had barely set foot in this country before this series.
England's total was their lowest in the first innings at Lord's since 2005 and the spotlight invariably fell on England captain Joe Root and his decision to bat first in what proved to be hard conditions.
Cook acknowledges that Pakistan are on top but believes England are not yet down and out.
Mohammad Amir of Pakistan (right) celebrates after bowling England's Alastair Cook on the opening day of the first test.More news: Morgan Freeman's transit ads on hold after harassment allegations emerge
Mark Stoneman's unconvincing global career continued when he was bowled by Abbas for four, beaten as he tried to drive a full-length delivery which clipped the top of his off stump.
Root, who could have been run out before he had scored, played carefully to get to four before driving rashly at a wide ball from Hasan to nick a catch to wicketkeeper Sarfraz Ahmed. Dawid Malan was also caught by Sarfraz off Hasan for six to leave England struggling at 43 for three.
Cook, England's all-time leading Test run-scorer, benefitted from an "umpire's call" lbw review verdict on 23 and went to fifty with a four to third man off Amir.
But Jonny Bairstow, promoted up the order to number five, was bowled by Faheem Ashraf for 27. Stokes, who had moved to 38 with six boundaries, was trapped LBW by the impressive Abbas.More news: NFL's Terrance Williams' Lamborghini Crash Pics and Video
Pakistan's close-catching has often been a fallible part of their game.
The innings ended when Amir held a well-judged catch running back at mid-on to dismiss Mark Wood. For two days, first with ball and then bat, Pakistan have given England a masterclass in how to play on their home patch, batting patiently and with real commitment to the cause to reach 350 for eight, and sit on a 166-run first-innings lead.More news: Registration open for Summer Reading Program