Cosby was the subject of "the most racist and sexist trial in the history of the United States", his publicist, Andrew Wyatt, told reporters just minutes after he was led out of the courthouse in shackles on Tuesday.
In addition, Cosby was fined $25,000 and denied bail while appealing the sexual assault conviction.
Judge O'Neill also chose to designate Cosby a "sexually violent predator" under Pennsylvania law.
As a new arrival, he will be assessed by prison medical staff, psychologists and other staff.
The newly-dubbed "sexually violent predator" will not be required to shell out the salaries for those who worked the case, and the DA's office is not seeking any reimbursement for his 2017 mistrial, officials said.More news: [Match Highlights] Arsenal 3-1 Brentford - All The Goals & Best Bits
District Attorney Kevin Steele said Tuesday that Phoenix would only be a temporary home for Cosby, but a statement from the department of corrections said he is set to spend his entire sentence there.
Bill Cosby took my lovely, healthy young spirit and crushed it. That was followed by an accusation by Deborah Ramirez, who said Kavanaugh exposed himself to her while she was drunk at a college party.
Bill Cosby is spending his second night in prison and the exact location of his cell has been revealed Wednesday night.
Cosby's lawyers had argued that he should stay out of prison because he is 81 and legally blind.
Over the years, Philadelphia magazine has chronicled Crosby's decline, at times advancing the story and knowledge of the accusations against the comedian. We should be praising these women for showing us exactly who he is. She told jurors in April he gave her a pill he claimed would ease her menstrual cramps but instead left her immobilized and unable to stop an assault she called "gross".More news: Japan's space robots start asteroid survey
Five other accusers took the stand at the trial as part of an effort by prosecutors to portray him as a predator. His lawyers had asked that Cosby be placed under house arrest, citing his age and frailty.
Amy Worden, press secretary for the state Department of Corrections, said that new inmates go through an evaluation process that lasts between weeks and months to determine which prison is best suited for each inmate.
Rea encourages victims of sexual assault to come forward.
In 2017, Cosby's first trial ended in a mistrial after a jury from Allegheny County declared itself hopelessly deadlocked.More news: Third Kavanaugh accuser submits allegation to Senate panel